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Learn photography basics

Photography is about a lot of fun and a lot of skills too. While clicking is a common joy for many people, skills are yet to be conquered. Well, the technical knowledge may be boring. After all, it gives us a chance to make great pictures not only for your business but also of your family and friends. So, study hard and take even more fun after that.
Learn Photography Basics

Here the list of the posts on how to Learn photography basics and click better pictures every day.

  1. What is Exposure in camera?

  2. What is Shutter speed in camera?

  3. What Is Aperture in camera?

  4. What does ISO in a camera

  5. What is White Balance in camera?

  6. What is a Color Temperature in Photography?

And this list is going to grow…
If you like to know something specific please share in the comments below!
Cheers 😉

Improve Photography composition with Golden ratio

Golden Ratio is probably one of the most mysterious rules of photography. Not only because it’s too scientific, but it’s also not easy to apply without any additional help. So what is this Golden Ratio, and how you can improve your photography composition with it?

Let’s get back to the fact – how composition grids are used in general. All of them are created to put the elements of composition in order. Some items will be positioned along the lines, others may be positioned at intersections. Why artists and photographers do it? This method is used to guide the eye movement of the viewer and attract attention to specific details of the picture. In other words, it’s an attempt to control the impression created by an image.

Improve Photography composition with Golden ratio

While, in painting, the artist could think in advance and build composition for a while; photographers are not that lucky. They do have a chance to build the composition in commercial photography, but when they shoot a street or a concert or an event, it’s just not possible. But if you learn the composition rules, you may apply some of them during the shoot, and then perfect the photographs with the cropping tool during the post production in Adobe LightRoom (Just press ‘o’ when you work with the ‘crop tool’ and you will see many grid options one after another). You may find that most of the grids will work with good images and won’t help much to the bad ones. 

So what is Golden Ratio?

The Golden Ratio is also known as Fibonacci Ratio which is approximately equal to 1:1.618. It’s not only represented by a spiral but by many other shapes, the key is proportion. The Renaissance artists were engaged with the science. They were researching everything. They were trying to understand human bodies and did experiments on it, Leonardo was trying to build up the flying machine, alchemists were trying to get the gold out of the lead (Plumbum). Obviously within all this passion, the fine art was influenced by science. The composition elements were placed on a specific grid, they were in specific proportions and particular quantities (0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21… Is Fibonacci Sequence). Everything had its meaning, simple still life in a “Last Supper” would tell us a story about the character, the smile of Mona Lisa was not just a smile but something more. So, shall we go that deep when we simply make some pics for Social media? Hmm. Definitely a food for thought. 

The grids which represent Golden Ratio.


Seeing so many grids, the first question that arises is how can it be helpful? Well, being honest, most of this grids will be applied after the shoot, not during the shoot. If you photograph a lot and try to perfect your pictures with every second click, you may find that you already follow the golden ratio rule naturally. After all, as they say, it’s a natural harmony, so if we aim balanced pictures, we will end up with the images close to the Golden Ratio proportion.

In conclusion, I will give you a very non-scientific advice. Follow your heart and intuition, try to feel the composition. See as many Renaissance paintings, as you can, here is the wonderful collection, check it out.
And if you want to be inspired by the magic of Golden Ratio, watch the video below. It’s absolutely inspiring and self-explanatory masterpiece.

Planning the food photography photo shoot

It’s an interesting fact when I plan the photo shoot in my studio, approve drafts with clients, decide the setup in advance, collect the props – the entire photography process goes fast and the results are usually impressive. The moment client says we will decide during the shoot, I can add 3-4 hours extra. The reading of “Planning the food photography photo shoot” is advised for clients, so for photographers. So, let us take a look at how to avoid these extra hours, just by making a plan!

Make yourself a Q&A session. Take the pen and paper. Here are some questions to answer:

Who will see these pictures?
Describe your target audience, the people who need to be caught by the visuals, while others may not notice it. The more accurate explanation you find, the better result you will get.

What do I wish to get from the viewers?
Do they have to buy your product or they have to be inspired by the illustration of the recipe and cook? This final goal may dictate the treatment of the composition: close-up, empty space, colors, etc.

What emotion will they feel?
A good photograph always brings forward some emotions. In case of food photography, it can be hunger, desire, passion, inspiration, love, and you name it. So what emotion you need to arise to reach the goal mentioned in the previous question?

Where are you going to use these pictures?
Social media requirements are a lot lighter than the magazine advertisement. Also for the online usage, you need more pictures than for the print. In other words, how are people going to experience your photographs? Would it be a timeline in some popular SM? Nice glossy page of the expensive magazine or a book? Maybe it will happen on some food site where other pictures will compete with it or it’s a big advertisement in a shop? Maybe it’s a giant screen in a cinema hall? The way how viewers experience the picture may give some ideas for the shoot treatment.


Come with the idea!

The answers to the preceding question probably inspired you with some sort of idea. Does not really matter if it’s still raw, note it down. Actually, write down all the ideas which just came in your mind. You may like to brainstorm it with your colleagues. You may like to discuss it with your photographer. Polish it, come with several really good thought on how to move forward. By the way, if you need some inspiration on how to get better ideas, check this out. Once finished, proceed towards the next questions.

How many products or dishes you want to shoot? 
A Food photographer can finish from 6 to 10 setups in one day, if we talk about serious professionals. Probably you do not need to shoot all dishes in a complex setup. I’m asking because startups often want to shoot 300 dishes for the site or more. You may create 6 extraordinary images to highlight the theme and the values of your brand. But all other pictures you can create with a simple setup, say on a white background. It will save time and money. Draw a list of the dishes in which you decide what is requires a primary attention while the other secondary.

Who will cook and style the dishes? Do you need props or prop hunter? Which props will reflect the idea? Do you need the models and make-up artist for them? 
If you need extra specialists, you need to think about it in advance. They need to be paid and the cost of the photo shoot doesn’t cover their services (project cost maybe different, than the cost of the simple shoot). They are required to sync their time schedule, as well. Excellent news – a photographer usually knows such specialist and can advise someone.

Once we have an idea, the list of the dishes and experts. We have to decide a location. The place for work has to match the technical requirements, mood, and need. For example, if we shoot with artificial light, we need a lot of space just to place the equipment around the table and no people around (it’s not safe for clients to jump over the wires). If we shoot with natural light, then we need to have enough big windows and good weather on the day of shooting. Whatever you choose, get the maximum from the location, so if you shoot in the restaurant, incorporate the interiors and some branding elements such as napkins with logo or so.

And here is the final stage – you find your idea, you know exactly what to shoot, and where. Start making drafts. You do not have to be an artist to make drafts. But you need to realize the way how the light falls on a dish. Your draft will include basic composition, props ideas, and basic lighting vision. These drawings will help in saving a lot of time and making the shoot organized. It’s really important that both the client and the photographer agreed upon these drawings. Ideally, a photographer is supposed to create the drawings, but if client draws the drafts – it’s also good.

 

What is exposure in camera?

The exposure in photography is one of the most important elements. Well, if you click everything in the auto mode, exposure will be adjusted automatically. But if you want to photograph, then you need to work with manual mode of the camera.

The of exposure (digital photography)

Exposure – the unit of measurement for the total amount of light reached the image sensor during each shot. The exposure is controlled with the Shutter speed, Aperture, and ISO. All three are together called exposure triangle.

The exposure triangle
Exposure consists of the three components: Aperture, Shutter Speed, and ISO. Each represents the equal side of the exposure triangle. To use this idea, just imagine the perfect triangle with equal sides. It is natural that to change the length of one side, you will need to change the lengths of other two sides too. All the elements in a triangle are related to each other, and of course, they are also related to the light condition you are shooting in.
exposure-explainedLet’s consider a few examples with natural light
Let’s say, you like to photograph the portrait on a bright day. Additionally, you plan to focus on the eyes and blurred background. The background is also far away from the model. You may like to use “big aperture” (F/2 or F/4.5 depends on your lens) on a bright day, you may use ISO 100 to achieve a less noisy image. With this condition, your shutter speed will be very high, depending on the amount of light; it could be above 1/1000 or even more. Once you set up the Aperture and the ISO, you may change your shutter speed and check the result via the light meter in camera. When the indicator is in the center your settings are done. Try to remember them. In photography, a camera is just a tool to get amazing pictures, so it’s ideal if these settings come into your mind automatically- without disturbing the creative process.

Alternatively, you may like to photograph a friend with a lovely cityscape behind. But you would love to see details of the wonderful architecture behind. In such a situation, you will need to use a smaller aperture – F/7 or smaller (depends on your lens). As your aperture is now smaller, you need to adjust the other components. You may like to increase the ISO by about 200 or more, and then adjust the shutter speed the same way as you did in the previous example.
Both of the examples are relevant if you use manual mode. In other modes such as Shutter Speed priority or Aperture priority, the numbers will be decided automatically by a camera. If you use one of the automatic modes, everything may be decided by the camera. But please notice that human judgment leads to more creative and interesting photographs.

How to achieve the right exposure
The “Correct exposure” means you have enough details in a final image. The “Overexposed image” means the details in the light area were lost. The “Underexposed image” means the details in the dark areas were lost.
Most of the cameras have some sort of light meter. During the professional photo shoot, the photographers use the more sensitive external light meter. But for everyday shooting, the inbuilt light meter is good enough. The light meter indicates the exposure condition under natural light. But if you work with impulsive and unpredictable lights then you need external light meter such as Sekonic. The external equipment is quite expensive, so there is another way. You have to practice with your lights a lot and remember the numbers on your strobes or speed lights with relation to each camera setting. It sounds close to impossible, but after few months of practice, it will start working and your numbers will be close to the right measurements.

In conclusion
Keep the size of the Triangle equal. Remember the settings. Plan the shot. If you need more specific information, please check the articles from Photography 101 series.

What is white balance in camera?

Red, Green, and Blue are the 3 primary colors that form the white light. They are mixed in various proportions – depending upon the color temperature of the light. If the color temperature is high – the light is bluish. If it’s low – the light is reddish.

 

Definition of White Balance
The white balance is used to remove the unnecessary color casts so as to make the image look more natural. Hence, it  is set according to the color temperature of the light sources.
Working with White Balance
In most of the cases,  a white balance is used to avoid the casts. While some photographers choose to use  the “wrong white balance” to produce very creative pictures. You can also create very warm pictures if you use the “shade mode” in the daytime. The opposite (cold) is valid if one is using “tungsten mode”. While DSLR has special mods for all the different types of lights – it’s not really necessary that you must use flash white balance when you use the Speedlight or strobe. Most of the modern digital cameras will calculate ambient light and provide you with a decent result on an “Auto White Balance Mode”, specifically when two or more color temperatures from the different light sources are mixed in the one set. In such cases “Auto white balance” is good to use, or neutralize particular light sources with color filters or gels. There is also the more professional way to set up the white balance by using neutral white, it called “Custom White Balance”. Most of the DSLRs will have instructions on how to set up the “Custom White Balance” for your particular camera.
What is white balance in camera?
While shooting on film was required to adjust light sources with filters and gels. However, when we are shooting with the digital camera, it’s easier as you can use the Auto White Balance (AWB). Also, if you photograph using RAW or DNG format, you may adjust your white balance later while processing the images. However, some of the details may be lost if the transformation is too dramatic. So it is always recommended to use the correct white balance during the shooting. To adjust the white balance in RAW pictures, the photographers use “Gray cards“. They are put within the set later as they help in picking the neutral gray during postprocessing.

 

P. S White balance in food photography is usually aiming the daylight color temperature (except for some special occasions like candle light dinner or so). That’s why many food photographers say that natural light makes food look tastier.

What is color temperature in photography?

The color temperature one of the most important things in photography. I would say it also part of photography multiplication table, something all photographers know and use all the time.

Definition of the color temperature
Well, technically speaking color temperature is one of the many characteristics of the visible light. Each light source has it own color temperature.  Take a look at this table:
Temperature Source
1,700 K Match flame, low-pressure sodium lamps (LPS/SOX)
1,850 K Candle flame, sunset/sunrise
2,700–3,300 K Incandescent lamps
3,000 K Soft (or Warm) White compact fluorescent lamps
3,200 K Studio lamps, photofloods, etc.
3,350 K Studio “CP” light
4,100–4,150 K Moonlight
5,000 K Horizon daylight
5,000 K Tubular fluorescent lamps orcool white/daylight compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
5,500–6,000 K Vertical daylight, electronic flash
6,200 K Xenon short-arc lamp
6,500 K Daylight, overcast
6,500–10,500 K LCD or CRT screen
15,000–27,000 K Clear blue poleward sky

The color temperature measured in Kelvin (K). As it visible from the current table the light temperature varies from reddish to bluish tints. Natural daylight is usually between 5500 to 6000 K but in the “magic hours” it became as warm as 2000K as well. Light below 5000 K (1,700 – 5000K) considered as warm colors and the light above  daylight (5000-27000K) referred to cool colors.

Color temperature and White Balance

In photography, the color temperature is always used along with term “white balance”. To create correct white balance photographer need to understand with what color temperature he deal with and adjust camera settings accordingly.

Find more about White Balance Here